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About nuccio

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    Corolla 1.8 HSD Style
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  1. Here I am discussing the ... DANGER FROM THE BOOST_CONVERTER CIRCUIT I divide the electronic circuits into 2 types: - The first is made up of all those circuits that I call control and transmission of signals, which by their nature are not at all dangerous because they work with very low voltages and equally low currents. These circuits, if well designed and manufactured, cannot burn out, especially if they are protected by a fuse. - In the second type I put those circuits that must work with higher currents, from 100 mA up to hundreds of amperes. The Boost-Converter is one of these. Mine works with currents up to 40 Amps input, and to raise the output voltage, it has to continuously interrupt the flow through a key component called Power Mosfet. It is designed to handle up to 160 Amps of current, but even with only 40A it heats up after a while, which is why it has to be mounted on a heat sink. Any excess heat is dissipated by a fan that ignites when a certain temperature is reached. If the temperature gets too close to the acceptable limit, the circuit breaks and switches off the entire Power-Bank system. During the first tests, a display will allow me to monitor the temperature during active driving. The most critical moments are accelerations and higher speeds. In fact, the current supplied by the Boost-converter is proportional to that required by the electric motor. In conclusion we can say that when the car is parked or stopped there is no risk from the electric circuits because they are all off. Moreover, both when the car is on and when it is off, there is no danger that the current from the hybrid system could flow to the Power-bank kit, so there is no danger of damaging the hybrid system. To limit the risks as much as possible, the power off systems are duplicated. For example, each battery has its own BMS which will cut off the current flow when the battery has run out of power, but so will the Boost-converter if it detects an input voltage below the safety limit. What do you think? Greetings Nuccio
  2. BATTERY DANGER Modifying a hybrid car puts us at great risk of setting everything on fire (not just the car). The main source of this risk is the hybrid battery, in our case lithium-ion battery. The heat that develops chemical reactions during normal discharge and charging raises the temperature of the battery. Sometimes after intensive use or when fully charged we have all noticed that even our mobile phone is hot. The problem arises when the temperature reaches too high and triggers chain reactions. But it's not just the heat that creates problems. The voltage or state of charge must also remain within set values. It's bad enough we have to deal with all these things. But let's not worry, in all lithium batteries there are electronic circuits that handle everything well. In our Corolla there is even a computer dedicated only to battery management. I don't want to alarm you because our cars are safe and well tested, but in case a battery alarm appears on the dashboard it is better to take this seriously and contact Toyota assistance immediately. But the batteries in my kit are not made by Toyota, what risk do you run with them? A micropocessor monitors the current, the voltage of each cell and the temperature in various parts of the battery pack and if only one of these values goes out of limit, it immediately breaks the connection with the outside. The quality of construction and connections is also very high. Using the experience of many years of work on electric motorbikes I have used many tricks that increase the safety and reliability of the batteries. Then I must say that in this use my batteries are absolutely not stressed because they have to deliver a very low current compared to their capacity. To give you a better idea when using on an electric bike my batteries deliver 110 amps continuous while reaching over 200 amps peak. My kit, on the other hand, delivers a maximum of 50 amps of peak current, and this little developed heat is no problem at all. I'd say the Battery Danger is very limited. But there is also the danger brought by the Boost Converter's power circuits, which we will talk about tomorrow. Greetings Nuccio
  3. With this project I have to act very carefully because the value of the car is very high and it is vital that nothing happens to it. The risks are on two levels: the first one is that the car gets ruined, for example it catches fire. The second level of risk is that the insurance or Toyota does not cover the damage. But without risking anything, nothing is done. I've been designing and building electric motorcycles for 10 years and I need this experience to understand where and why these fatal breakdowns happen. In my project there are 2 sources of risk: 1) - The battery 2) - The Boost Converter. Tomorrow we will see how to limit these risks. Good night. Nuccio
  4. Hi Timmon The story's over because it all caught fire? These reports make me a little anxious, because it is true, there's always the danger of something happening. It happened to a friend of mine while he was riding around on an electric bike. The controller caught fire, but luckily the battery was saved and it's still working. Look what's left of the controller, down here. I had to redo all the connections because the wires were burned out. Nuccio
  5. Hi Stephen With this project I'll have it for several months. I have an old electric motorcycle project that I suspended because it was too expensive, but I don't have any new ones. Greetings Nuccio
  6. Yes, the bike is completely electric. It's the first of four prototypes I built just as a hobby. I graduated in electronics and worked for many years in electronics companies. For more information then see my old blog that I link to: Greetings Nuccio
  7. Hi Stivino I will gladly answer your questions. What size is your power bank? What type of construction will it be? How heavy is it? These are two boxes of 240 x 210 x 13.5 Cm. and weighing 13 Kg each. Each of them contains 18 Li-Poly cells 22.5 Ah , in 9s 2p configuration. So these are nominal 33V 45Ah battery packs that deliver 110A continuous and 200A peak on my electric bike. Here they are mounted on my electric prototype: Will it mean that you will have to remove something, a seat for instance, to accomodate it? Where will you store it when it is in use? My system consists of a fixed part which is the Boost-Converter (the electronics that regulates voltage and current) and a moving part which are the two batteries. The Boost-converter will be put inside the spare wheel compartment. The two batteries will be placed in the trunk of the car like two small suitcases. Obviously they will be rigidly fixed with a belt or something else. Where will it get its power from? The two batteries must be easily removable from the trunk as if they were two simple suitcases (that's why they are small and weigh relatively little). I can take them into the house to recharge them at night, or during the day I can leave them at my son's house which has a photovoltaic roof. Greetings Nuccio
  8. I called it Plugin because it allows more autonomy in electrical almost like the Hybrid Plugins. But if we want to use better known terms and refer to the mobile phone, we can call it more properly "Power-bank". When I'm out of the house and suddenly I realize that the battery of my phone is leaving me, I take the power-bank out of my pocket and connect it to the phone to use it until I get home. I haven't changed anything on the phone, which will continue to work as if nothing had happened. I just backed up its battery. This is what I want to do to my car. In my project the operation of connecting the "power-bank" is automatic, and only happens when the hybrid battery has to supply power. Nothing affects the operation of the car. Thank you Nuccio
  9. Hi Stivino Yes, I'm complicating something very simple. I like my Corolla and I don't want to change it, but I want to get more from her. Maybe I've written too much to describe what I want to do, so it seems very complicated. Actually this is like when we use a Power-bank to make our cell phone battery last longer. We don't modify anything on the phone but we increase its performance a lot. Thank you for your comment. Nuccio
  10. Hi, everybody several days went by without anyone expressing an opinion on my project, but I didn't wait. In addition to selecting the best components, I refined my design in terms of safety and functionality. Below I enclose the updated schematic, where I have added two contactors that isolate the high voltage cables and connect them only when the current has to pass through. So if you disconnect the K4 connector, the high voltage no longer reaches its contacts.
  11. Good morning, everybody, I would need your precious help today. To properly choose the current sensor to put in the Plug-in Kit it would be very useful for me to know the maximum current that the Corolla 1.8 Hybrid My19 battery delivers. I already have the instruments at home to measure it myself, but due to the current restrictions I can't use the car to do the necessary tests. Please, do any of you have this important information? Thank you very much. Nuccio
  12. Dear HSDish here we come from different countries and speak different languages and it is nice that we also have different experiences and knowledge. Your contribution is very precious. Best regards Nuccio
  13. Hello SHDisc What you're saying worries me a little. Maybe my English translation is poor ? Or don't you understand those terms like: Hall effect current sensor, or Boost Converter, or the weird current flows ? If it's for translation, I'll try to improve by getting help. As far as technical terms are concerned, I'm sorry but at this stage of the project I have to go deeper and discuss also electronic circuits. Have a nice day Nuccio
  14. Hi, everybody If you have the time and the desire below is the full description of what I want to do. The technical details will come later, for now good reading. Plug-In for Toyota Corolla 1.8 Hybrid. There are many kits on the market to transform a pure Hybrid into a Plug-In, very interesting, but always a bit too invasive on the hybrid drive system. Changing the system immediately loses any manufacturer's warranty! So it is not recommended to mount them on a new car. Doing it on an outdated car may be more convenient, as long as the cost of the operation is compatible with the commercial value of the car. Both the original Plug-In and the Kits allow 50/60 Km of electric autonomy, which in some cases are not enough to cover the entire journey made, but in many others are higher than the daily mileage, so you would not need all that autonomy in electric. It could be enough to cover 10 - 20 Km, which allow you to reach even the farthest shopping centre, for example. Given these premises, here are the features of our Kit : 1) Non-invasive It is assembled and disassembled without changing anything about the car. 2) Light and removable battery In case you need to take it home for recharging, or remove it to leave more space for luggage, or use it in another vehicle. 3) It works automatically But everything is under the control of a switch so it can be switched on and off from the driver's seat, i.e. it can be activated or deactivated as required. 4) Safety controls That they turn it off in case of overheating, malfunction or accident. 5) Extends the life of the battery Hybrid Decreasing the discharge current and keeping its temperature lower. 6) Costs little Depending on the battery capacity chosen, it ranges from 1000 to 1800 euros. Only 400 euros without batteries. 7) You can use batteries already in the user's hands. For example, the batteries of pedal-assisted bicycles or electric scooters and motorcycles. They must be removable and can be transferred from one vehicle to another as required. It is sufficient that the nominal voltage is at least 24 volts. It is not necessary that the two batteries are the equal of each other. HOW IT WORKS The system is based on two main components, in addition of course to the additional battery: 1) - The current sensor that detects how much current is coming out or going in from the hybrid battery. 2) - The Boost-Converter which is regulated by the current sensor, it takes energy from the additional battery and sends it on the cable coming out of the hybrid battery to the converter of the hybrid system, lightening the work of the hybrid battery which in this way has to supply only a part of the current to the electric motor. CURRENT SENSOR It is a Hall effect current sensor that physically does not touch anything in the existing system. It is a ring that goes around the cable that carries the current from the hybrid battery to the "electric motor" and that detects the current intensity in both directions, and consequently sends a signal, of proportional level, to the Boost-converter of the Kit . BOOST CONVERTER It is an electronic device capable of increasing the voltage supplied to it at the input. In our case it is connected between our additional battery and the cables from the hybrid battery. If it makes the idea better, we can say that it brings the energy of the additional battery to the same potential as the Hybrid battery. It provides a fixed and appropriately calibrated output voltage based on the voltage of the hybrid battery. While, driven by the current sensor, it supplies the hybrid system with an amount of current proportional to the signal it receives.In fact, it lightens the workload of the hybrid battery, providing it with a fair portion of the current required by the inverter/electric motor unit. During braking and slowing down, in the hybrid system the current flows from the motor/inverter to the hybrid battery, recharging it. At this stage the kit remains inactive so as not to affect the balance between the components as designed by the vehicle manufacturer, and not to stress the hybrid battery. BATTERIES The solution of using 2 batteries instead of 1 was chosen for the following reasons: 1) Weighing half , it is easier to take them out of the car and take them to other places to recharge them, or simply disassemble the kit before taking the car for servicing. The weight of each one can vary from 8 kg to 12 kg. 2) Being removable, they must be fixed in an easily accessible place, so being smaller it is easier to find a place in the boot of the car. 3) Consequently also the electronics of the Boost-converter is smaller and warms up less. 4) It is easier to find batteries on the market or to build them yourself. In my case I already have two 1.5 Kw/h batteries that I can take out of my electric motorbike. SUMMARIZING The hybrid battery will discharge less and recharge equally, keeping a higher charge level to support the Solo-Electric mode for longer journeys. For city journeys where there are many traffic lights, stops and roundabouts, you can set the Kit to provide low-current charging of the hybrid battery even during stop times. It is recommended to use a charging rate lower than 1C (i.e. a maximum current of 3.6 Ampere on the Corolla). The boost-converter of the Kit is calibrated for an output voltage suitable for the type of car, so that it provides a maximum voltage that never exceeds 70/80 % of the maximum voltage of the hybrid battery (in the case of the new Toyota Corolla it could be 220 V max). This means that the kit is self-activated when the hybrid battery voltage drops below 70/80 % when driving.Similarly, it deactivates when, due to charging due to slowing, descending and braking, the voltage of the Hybrid battery rises above 70/80 %. In order to stay within the tight limits of space, cost and weight, the Kit is designed to provide less than 4Kw of maximum power, which results in preferential use on low speed routes. With highway speeds, the Kit still works with its own amount of energy, but you see less of an advantage. Updated on 14/04/2020 Every comment will be appreciated. We will then be able to evaluate point by point whether the 17 issues you raised earlier have been resolved. Thank you Nuccio
  15. Hello Oxigen Thank you for sharing your experiences and those of your friend. Autonomy in the winter months is a problem that afflicts both plug-ins and pure electricity. However, while for pure electrics it is imperative not to run out of charge, for plug-ins there is always the ICE alternative. We welcome a few more miles but it's no big deal if we have a few less. Thanks Nuccio