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Engine Oil Viscosity

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Engine Oil Viscosity

Viscosity is the most misunderstood aspect of Oil and yet it is the most important.

Viscosity is the force required to shear (break) the Oil at a certain speed and temperature. Oils work because they have viscosity; the drag of a rotating part pulls Oil from a low-pressure area into a high pressure area and “floats” the surfaces apart. This is called “hydrodynamic lubrication” and crankbearings depend on it.

Oil must be capable of flowing at low temperatures, so that it gets around the engine in a fraction of a second at start-up and must protect engine components at high temperatures without evaporating or carbonising and maintain adequate (not excessive) Oil pressure. Many people think that the thicker the Oil, the better the protection, but if the Oil is too thick, it will not flow properly, leading to reduced protection.

The numbers on every can of Oil indicate its performance characteristics when new but there are many misconceptions on what these numbers actually mean.

For multigrade oils you will see two numbers (for monograde oils only one). The first is followed by a “w” and is commonly 0, 5, 10, 15 or 20. The second number is always higher than the first and is commonly 20, 30, 40, 50 or 60. The first and second numbers ARE NOT related.

The “w” number (0, 5, 10, 15 or 20)
When multigrade oils first appeared, a low temperature test called “w” (meaning “winter” not weight) was introduced. Using a “Cold Crank Simulator", the test measures the oils ability to flow at low temperatures. ALL oils are THICKER at low temperatures than at high temperatures but the lower the “w” number, the quicker the Oil will flow at low temperatures.

The second number (20, 30, 40, 50 or 60)
This number is known as the SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) number and is measured in “Centistokes” (cst) at 100C. Centistokes (cst) is the measure of a fluid's resistance to flow (viscosity). It is calculated in terms of the time required for a standard quantity of fluid at a certain temperature to flow through a standard orifice. The higher the value, the thicker the Oil.

An oils cst at 100C determines its SAE rating within the following parameters.
SAE 20 = 5.6 to less than 9.3cst
SAE 30 = 9.3 to less than 12.5cst
SAE 40 = 12.5 to less than 16.3cst
SAE 50 = 16.3 to less than 21.9cst
SAE 60 = 21.9 to less than 26.0cst

ALL oils labelled 40 must fall within the SAE parameters at 100C so everything from a monograde 40 to multigrade 0w-40, 5w-40, 10w-40, 15w-40 or 20w-40 are approximately the same thickness at 100C.

Some Oil companies label oils as SAE 35, 45 or 55, but as you can see from the above figures, there isn't a SAE 35, 45 or 55. This "could" be because they are approximately on the boundary of the two grades, but as we don't deal with any of those I can't really comment further.

Summary

Cold start.
A 5w-40 will flow better than a 10w-40.
A 10w-50 will flow better than a 15w-50
A 5w-40 is the same as a 5w-30

At operating temperatures.
A 10w-50 is thicker than a 10w-40.
A 15w-50 is thicker than a 5w-40
A 0w-40 is the same as a 10w-40

If you look above, you will see that the figures quoted do not indicate at all as to whether the Oil is synthetic or mineral based... Well except for 0w oils as synthetic PAO basestock is required to acheive this viscosity.

Generally the Oil you use should be based on the manufacturers recommendation found in the owners manual, but then modifications, climate and the type of use can affect that recommendation. If you are unsure of what is the correct recommendation for your car and would like to know more please contact us here oilman@opieoils.co.uk

With thanks to John Rowland of Fuchs/Silkolene

Cheers

Tim and the Opie Oils team


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Thank you for that. I've always thought the 'w' was 'warm' and was always a bit puzzled as to how it all hung together.

Now I understand :flowers:

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Would it be correct to assume a 0w40 would be better than, say 10w40 then?

i.e. it will flow better at engine start and get to where it needs to be, but provide the same protection as a 40 at higher temps?

Or are there downsides too...?

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0-40 is better that 10w-40! Now down sides at all! Oil will get round engine quicker at cold start up. What's more important is the spec for the engine.

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Hi

In most cases with a modern engine, a 0w is fine in place of a 10w, but in something older, like a ST205, or where the engine is worn or there it's a forged build (meaning the tolerances are larger), they can be quite loud and rattly on start up. Also, there aren't many 0w-40 oils and the UK doesn't get cold enough to need a 0w, so usually, I'd recommend a 5w-40 over a 0w-40.

Cheers

Tim

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My post referred to modern engines and not older ones that need a 10w or 20w as Tim quite rightly said. I would rather use a 0w over a 5w! Even though my T-180 is fine with both! But the word is the 0w is the preferred grade for these Oil burners 🚙💨

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